Positive environmental externalities that rural areas contribute and the impact that depopulation may have on them
The Report “Positive environmental externalities that rural areas contribute and the impact that depopulation may have on them”, and specifically, the case of the provinces of Cuenca, Soria and Teruel, shows the value of sparsely populated areas as donor territories , whose benefits transcend the entire society from an environmental and social point of view. The aforementioned Report has objectified specific data, showing that these territories ensure the conservation of biodiversity, decisively contribute to curbing the global effects of climate change, as well as providing the opportunity to integrate the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in terms of sustainability, of well-being, quality of life and health of people, both of those who live in rural areas and of those who live in cities.
Based on the Report, the following measures are proposed in order to converge the transformations necessary to maintain and improve the status of donor territories, in line with the European Green Deal and with the necessary ecological transition of the European Union; Because it is just as important to stop producing harmful effects on the environment as it is to maintain and enhance existing ecosystem services:
Given the positive potential that this study has yielded and with the aim of making it known to the greatest number of people, a video has also been produced that highlights the most relevant aspects of the report. Under the title Territories Donors of Life, the viewer is invited to reflect on the need to bet on the social, economic and demographic rebalancing between the territories as a guarantee for the future sustainability of our society. People who wish to do so can interact with us through the hashtags #weneedyouyouneedus #territoriesgiversoflife #EUclimatepact
The future of rural areas
The EU started a debate on the future of rural areas and the role those should play in our society. This initiative will establish a vision for the future of rural areas by 2040 and gather opinions on challenges such as:
- demographic change;
- low income;
- limited access to services.
It will also explore innovative, inclusive and sustainable solutions in light of digital and climate transformation and the COVID-19 crisis.
With that goal in mind, we at SSPA propose a series of measures to successfully address the demographic challenge for rural areas, particularly sparsely populated areas and territories with severe and permanent demographic disabilities.
Map 174. Zoning of Spanish municipalities subject to serious and permanent demographic disadvantages
Map 174 has been made by geographers, José Antonio Guillén, technician of the SSPA Network and María Zúñiga, professor at the University of Zaragoza, CEOT Group, IUCA of the Department of Geography and Spatial Planning of the University of Zaragoza, it can serve to identify the singularities of the territories and thus be able to take the most effective and fair measures. With the elaboration of this map, the SSPA network aims to contribute to the debate on depopulation a tool that improves the territorial diagnosis with a view to the application of specific policies and measures that have to reverse the worrying demographic and socioeconomic crisis that affects a part important part of rural inland Spain.
The map starts from the literal of Article 174 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union -Treaty of Lisbon-, where it is highlighted that the Union will propose to reduce the differences between the levels of development of the various regions, paying special attention to rural areas and those with severe and permanent natural or demographic handicaps. Starting from these premises, the map aims to measure the degree of these disadvantages through 6 variables: altitude, average slope, population density, aging index, percentage of population between 0 and 4 years old, and population evolution between 1991 and 2018 The map shows not only the magnitude of the depopulation problem, the main one of a territorial order that affects the country as a whole, but that the incidence of the phenomenon is not much more unequal between provinces and autonomous communities than would be expected.
With regard to the spatial dimension of the phenomenon of depopulation, 37% of the Spanish surface is in a serious or very serious demographic situation, while in the case of the SSPA network this percentage reaches 70%.
Amendments for the European Parliament
It is a crucial moment for the Southern Sparsely Populated Areas as the European Parliament is in full debate to define and specify the next financial framework, in which the specific funds and policies will be defined to fight against depopulation. The MEPs that make up the Regional Development Commission within the European Parliament will discuss some of the most significant amendments for our territories, and will decide which ones will be incorporated into the document on future EU policy.
The SSPA network has reviewed the amendments presented by the MEPs to the proposal of the European Commission for the new financial period 2021-2027, and analyzes those that are supported to get concrete measures taken within the European policies that allow a real development and lasting of our territories.
Position paper on the design of cohesion instruments
The SSPA network developed a position paper on the design of cohesion instruments after 2020. This document can have an unquestionable value in terms of defining the future policies of the European Union regarding the demographic challenge in what affects to the most fragile rural areas and the sparsely populated areas.
The document is based on the premise that low population density is the most evident symptom of the real problem that an important part of our rural environment suffers in the form of a prolonged structural crisis for decades, which threatens to render the territory unviable in social, economic and demographic terms. To reverse this situation and stop the imbalance between the rural and urban areas, the work advocates the reformulation of policies of territorial cohesion, redefining even the concept of depopulated or rural areas, introducing changes in the distribution of funds and creating a territorial development agency that manages and monitors all actions.
Successfully combatting rural depopulation through a new model of rural development. The Highlands and Islands Enterprise Experience
The SSPA network in collaboration with the participants of the trip has prepared a report that reflects the reflections and teachings shared by all the participants and based on findings made in the first person, on the ground, during the study visit to Scotland.
Therefore, the purpose of this document is to transmit the knowledge acquired to administrations -both at a political and technical level-, which work on the phenomenon of depopulation and the socioeconomic decline of the rural environment, especially in the case of remote areas, mountainous and sparsely populated. Similarly, this document is also intended for society in general, seeking not only to raise awareness of the problems of rural areas, but also to disseminate the realization that there are successful responses that have had in the awareness, reflection and joint action among all the territorial actors its three fundamental keys.
Documentation of interest:
The problem of depopulation is not new, nor is it exclusive of these five territories. However, the greater seriousness and need to take urgent measures is well recognized in different documents, among which are:
Regions with severe and permanent demographic disadvantages are identified, using among others the category of SPAs (Sparsely Populated Areas), on pages 15-16-17.
Article 174 raises the possibility of claiming the “special attention” for these territories.
On page 60 the sparsely populated regions of Spain are evident.
Presented by the three business organizations of Cuenca, Soria and Teruel (spanish version).
In 2016, the European Parliament Research Service (EPRS) corroborates everything that has been said previously.
The purpose of the studies and reports commissioned by SSPA is twofold. On the one hand, the documents produced justify scientifically before public authorities and society as a whole the causes of depopulation. On the other hand, the consequences derived from the demographic and socioeconomic deterioration suffered by less populated provinces of southern Europe are shown.
Even before the creation of the SSPA network, the business organizations of Cuenca, Soria and Teruel have participated in different meetings. The sessions have been with actors from different areas: business, citizenship, university or politics field. In them, the future of the rural environment at the provincial level has been discussed.
At the level of the Spanish state, the SSPA Network has been able to participate in the debate, as well as appearing in the agreements and pronouncements of institutions such as: